The GNAPathon

Justin Richer
4 min readApr 11, 2022


At the recent IETF 113 meeting in Vienna, Austria, we put the GNAP protocol to the test by submitting it as a Hackathon project. Over the course of the weekend, we built out GNAP components and pointed them at each other to see what stuck. Here’s what we learned.

Our Goals

GNAP is a big protocol, and there was no reasonable way for us to build out literally every piece and option of it in our limited timeframe. While GNAP’s transaction negotiation patterns make the protocol fail gracefully when two sides don’t have matching features, we wanted to aim for success. As a consequence, we decided to focus on a few key interoperability points:

  • HTTP Message Signatures for key proofing, with Content Digest for protecting the body of POST messages.
  • Redirect-based interaction, to get there and back.
  • Dynamic keys, not relying on pre-registration at the AS.
  • Single access tokens.

While some of the components built out did support additional features, these were the ones we chose as a baseline to make everything work as best as it could. We laid out our goals to get these components to talk to each other in increasingly complete layers.

Our goal of the hackathon wasn’t just to create code, we wanted to replicate a developer’s experience when approaching GNAP for the first time. Wherever possible, we tried to use libraries to cover existing functionality, including HTTP Signatures, cryptographic primitives, and HTTP Structured Fields. We also used the existing XYZ Java implementation of GNAP to test things out.

New Clients

With all of this in hand, we set about building some clients from scratch. Since we had a functioning AS to build against, focusing on the clients allowed us to address different platforms and languages than we otherwise had. We settled on three very different kinds of client software:

By the end of the weekend, we were able to get all three of these working, and the demonstration results are available as part of the hackathon readout. This might not seem like much, but the core functionality of all three clients was written completely from scratch, including the HTTP Signatures implementation.

Getting Over the Hump

Importantly, we also tried to work in such a way that the different components could be abstracted out after the fact. While we could have written very GNAP-specific code to handle the key handling and signing, we opted to instead create generic functions that could sign and present any HTTP message. This decision had two effects.

First, once we had the signature method working, the rest of the GNAP implementation went very, very quickly. GNAP is designed in such a way as to leverage HTTP, JSON, and security layers like HTTP Message Signatures as much as it can. What this meant meant for us during implementation is that getting the actual GNAP exchange to happen was a simple set of HTTP calls and JSON objects. All the layers did their job appropriately, keeping abstractions from leaking between them.

Second, this will give us a chance to extract the HTTP Message Signature code into truly generic libraries across different languages. HTTP Message Signatures is used in places other than GNAP, and so a GNAP implementor is going to want to use a dedicated library for this core function instead of having to write their own like we did.

We had a similar reaction to elements like structured field libraries, which helped with serialization and message-building, and cryptographic functions. As HTTP Message Signatures in particular gets built out more across different ecosystems, we’ll see more and more support for fundamental tooling.

Bug Fixes

Another important part of the hackathon was the discovery and patching of bugs in the existing XYZ authorization server and Java Servlet web-based client code. At the beginning of the weekend, these pieces of software worked with each other. However, it became quickly apparent that there were a number of issues and assumptions in the implementation. Finding things like this is one of the best things that can come out of a hackathon — by putting different code from different developers against each other, you can figure out where code is weak, and sometimes, where the specification itself is unclear.

Constructing the Layers

Probably the most valuable outcome of the hackathon, besides the working code itself, is a concrete appreciation of how clear the spec is from the eyes of someone trying to build to it. We came out of the weekend with a number of improvements that need to be made to GNAP and HTTP Message Signatures, but also ideas on what additional developer support there should be in the community at large. These things will be produced and incorporated over time, and hopefully make the GNAP ecosystem brighter and stronger as a result.

In the end, a specification isn’t real unless you have running code to prove it. Even more if people can use that code in their own systems to get real work done. GNAP, like most standards, is just a layer in the internet stack. It builds on technologies and technologies will be built on it.

Our first hackathon experience has shown this to be a pretty solid layer. Come, build with us!



Justin Richer

Justin Richer is a security architect and freelance consultant living in the Boston area. To get in touch, contact his company: